Experimental Evaluation of Mobilized Friction Angle of Sandy Soil-Rubber Mixtures for Different Loading Stress Paths

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University

2 Ph.D. Candidate of Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, I. R. Iran.


Tire-derived aggregates mixed with granular soils are amongst the new materials with different characteristics, as compared to the base materials, which are being used more commonly with the increase of waste rubbers and tires. These lightweight materials, having controlled compressibility, could be used in civil engineering infrastructures, road construction, and geotechnical structures. Up to now, limited experimental studies have been performed to present optimum mixing ratio of waste rubber and sand to attain the engineering purposes including the maximum bearing capacity and the most proper compressibility. Nevertheless, determination of a specific mixing ratio and identification of shear strength parameters of sand-rubber mixtures under different stress paths needs further study. In this research, results of triaxial tests, considering constant radial stress (CRS) and constant axial stress (CAS) paths on the sand alone and also mixed with rubber chips and granulated rubber are presented. Results of relative density tests demonstrated that the optimum rubber mixing ratio of 30% in weight acquires the least void ratio when sand is mixed with rubber chips. The sand alone tests resulted in an effective strength envelope which is approximately linear with a friction angle of approximately 36.8° in both stress paths. While, the outcome of the two different loading methods on the sand-rubber mixtures is an approximately bilinear stress envelope. The internal friction angle of sand mixed with rubber chips is greater than that of sand alone by 8.5 and 4 degrees under the CAS and CRS conditions, respectively. This parameter is about 1.5 and 5 degrees less than sand alone for granulated rubber mixed with sand, under the CAS and CRS conditions, respectively.


AbdelRazek, A., El-Sherbiny, R. M. and Lotfi, H. A. 2018. “Mechanical properties and time-dependent behaviour of sand-granulated rubber mixtures”. Geomech. Geoeng., DOI: 10.1080/17486025.2018. 1440013.
Anbazhagan, P. and Manohar, D. R. 2015. “Energy absorption capacity and shear strength characteristics of waste tire crumbs and sand mixtures”. Int. J. Geotech. Earthq. Eng., 6(1): 28-49.
Anbazhagan, P., Manohar, D. R. and Rohit, D. 2016. “Influence of size of granulated rubber and tyre chips on the shear strength characteristics of sand-rubber mix”. Geomech. Geoeng., 6025: 1-13.
ASTM D6270-12. 2014. “Standard practice for use of scrap tires in civil engineering applications”. DOI: 10.1520/D6270-12.
Attom, M. F. 2005. “The use of shredded waste tires to improve the geotechnical engineering properties of sands”. Environ. Geol., 49(4): 497-503.
Bali Reddy, S., Pradeep Kumar, D. and Murali Krishna, A. 2016. “Evaluation of the optimum mixing ratio of a sand-tire chips mixture for geoengineering applications”. J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 28(2): 6015007.
Bali Reddy, S., Krishna, A. M. and Reddy, K. R. 2017. “Sustainable utilization of scrap tire derived geomaterials for geotechnical applications”. Indian Geotech. J., DOI: 10.1007/s40098-017-0273-3.
Bosscher, P., Edil, T. B. and Kuraoka, S. 1997. “Design of highway embankments using tire chips”. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 123(4): 295-304.
Edincliler, A., Cabalar, A. F., Cagatay, A. and Cevik, A. 2012. “Triaxial compression behavior of sand and tire wastes using neural networks”. Neural Comp. Appl., 21(3): 441-452.
European Tyre and Rubber Industries Statistics. 2014. European Tire and Rubber Manufacturers’ Association (ETRMA).
Foose, G. J. G., Benson, C. H. and Bosscher, P. J. 1996. “Sand reinforced with shredded waste tire”. J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 122(9): 760-767.
Fox, P. J., Thielmann, S. S., Sanders, M. J., Latham, C., Ghaaowd, I. and McCartney, J. S. 2018. “Large-scale combination direct shear/simple shear device for tire-derived aggregate”. Geotech. Test. J., 41(2): 20160245.
Fu, R., Li, X. Q. and Coop, M. R. 2014. “The mechanics of a compressive sand mixed with tyre rubber”. Géotech. Lett., 4: 238-243.
Garga, V. K. and O’Shaughnessy, V. 2000. “Tire-reinforced earthfill. Part 1: Construction of a test fill, performance, and retaining wall design”. Can. Geotech. J., 37(1): 75-96.
Humphrey, D. and Manion, W. 1992. “Properties of tire chips for lightweight fill”. Grouting, Soil Improvement and Geosynthetics, American Society of Civil Engineers, New Orlean, pp. 1344-1355.
Jafarian, Y., Haddad, A. and Javdanian, H. 2016. “Estimating the shearing modulus of Boushehr calcareous sand using resonant column and cyclic triaxial experiments”. Modares Civ. Eng. J., 15(4): 9-19.
Javdanian, H. 2017. “The effect of geopolymerization on the unconfined compressive strength of stabilized fine-grained soils”. Int. J. Eng.-Trans. B: Appl., 30(11): 1673-1680.
Javdanian, H., Haddad, A. and Jafarian, Y. 2015. “Evaluation of dynamic behavior of fine-grained soils using group method of data handling”. J. Transport. Infrastruct. Eng., 1(3): 77-92.
Javdanian, H., Haddad, A. and Mehrzad, B. 2012. “Experimental and numerical investigation of the bearing capacity of adjacent footings on reinforced soil”. Electron. J. Geotech. Eng., 17: 2597-2617.
Kjartanson, B. H., Lohnes, R. A., Yang, S., Kerr, M. L., Zimmerman, P. S. and Gebhardt, M. A. 1993. “Use of waste tires in civil and environmental construction”. Final Report, Iowa Department of Natural Resources Landfill Alternatives Financial Assistance Program.
Ladd, R. 1978. “Preparing test specimens using undercompaction”. Geotech. Test. J., 1(1): 16.
Lee, J. H., Salgado, R., Bernal, A. and Lovell, C. W. 1999. “Shredded tires and rubber-sand as lightweight backfill”. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 125(2): 132-141.
Lee, J. S., Dodds, J. and Santamarina, J. C. 2007. “Behavior of rigid-soft particle mixtures”. J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 19(2): 179-184.
Lee, C., Shin, H. and Lee, J .S. 2014. “Behavior of sand-rubber particle mixtures: Experimental observations and numerical simulations”. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 32: 189-213.
Mashiri, M. S. 2014. “Monotonic and cyclic behaviour of sand-tyre chip (STCh) mixtures”. Wollongong.
Mashiri, M. S., Vinod, J. S., Neaz Sheikh, M. and Tsang, H. H. 2015. “Shear strength and dilatancy behaviour of sand-tyre chip mixtures”. Soils Found., 55(3): 517-528.
Meles, D., Bayat, A., Hussien Shafiee, M., Nassiri, S. and Gul, M. 2014. “Investigation of tire derived aggregate as a fill material for highway embankment”. Int. J. Geotech. Eng., 8(2): 182-190.
Neaz Sheikh, M., Mashiri, M. S., Vinod, J. S. and Tsang, H. H. (2013), “Shear and compressibility behavior of sand-tire crumb mixtures”. J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 25(10): 1366-1374.
Rao, G. V. and Dutta, R. K. 2006. “Compressibility and strength behaviour of sand-tyre chip mixtures”. Geotech. Geol. Eng., 24(3): 711-724.
Rezazadeh Eidgahee, D. and Hosseininia, E. S. 2013. “Mechanical behavior modeling of sand-rubber chips mixtures using discrete element method (DEM)”. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1542(1): 269-272.
Rezazadeh Eidgahee, D., Haddad, A. and Naderpour, H. 2018. “Evaluation of shear strength parameters of granulated waste rubber using artificial neural networks and group method of data handling”. Scient. Iranica, (In Press), available at: https://doi. org/10.24200/sci.2018.5663.1408.
Rubber-Manufacturers-Association (RMA). 2016. “2015 U.S. Scrap Tire Management Summary”. Washington DC, USA, available at: https://www.ustires.org/publications_bulletins?publication_categ ories=398.
Shafabakhsh, G. H., Sadeghnejad, M. and Sajed, Y. 2014. “Case study of rutting performance of HMA modified with waste rubber powder”. Case Stud. Constr. Mater., 1: 69-76.
Tafreshi, S. N. M., Mehrjardi, G. T. and Dawson, A. R. 2012. “Buried pipes in rubber-soil backfilled trenches under cyclic loading”. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 138(11): 1346-1356.
Tatlisoz, N., Edil, T. B. and Benson, C. H. 1998. “Interaction between reinforcing geosynthetics and soil-tire chip mixtures”. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 124(11): 1109-1119.
Tsang, H. H. 2008. “Seismic isolation by rubber-soil mixtures for developing countries”. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 37(2): 283-303.
World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). 2008. “Managing end-of-life tires”.
Yoon, S., Prezzi, M., Siddiki, N. Z. and Kim, B. 2006. “Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material”. Waste Manage., 26(9): 1033-1044.
Zornberg, J. G., Cabral, A. R. and Viratjandr, C. 2004. “Behaviour of tire shred-sand mixtures”. Can. Geotech. J., 41(2): 227-241.