Laboratory Evaluation of Stabilization and Reinforcement of Sandy Soil Using Fiber and Epoxy Resin

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Graduate Student, Dept. of Civil Eng., Graduate Univ. of Advanced Technol., Kerman, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Eng., Graduate Univ. of Advanced Technol., Kerman, Iran


Strengthening of poor and improper soils, in order to be utilized in civil engineering projects, for fabricating a soil with ideal engineering properties, is called stabilization and reinforcement. Soil stabilization is used for various purposes such as prevention of surface erosion, improvement of poor subgrades, controlling of shifting soils, rehabilitation of base layers and retrieving of old paths. Today, because of weaknesses such as poor strength and long duration for curing with common stabilizers (lime and cement), the attitude for finding new materials which can improve these deficiencies has increased. In this research, a sandy soil, a petrochemical material called epoxy resin (as stabilizer), and also a fiber (as soil reinforcing agent) were used to evaluate their effects on soil resistance-parameters. The behavior of stabilized soil in compression and shear was determined in this project. Results of the tests revealed that compression and tensile strengths of stabilized soil with epoxy resin were increased significantly; while the strengths of the sandy soil without epoxy were too weak. By addition of fiber to the soil samples, the soil compression strength was not increased; whereas, it has profound effect to promote tensile strength. Also, soil samples containing fiber showed more deformation. This means that they absorb more energy under loading to reach the rupture stage.


Anagnostopoulos, C. 2006. “Physical and mechanical properties of injected sand with latex-superplasticized grouts”. Geotech. Test. J., 29(6). DOI: 10.1520/GTJ100307
Anagnostopoulos, C. 2015. “Strength properties of an epoxy resin and cement-stabilized silty clay soil”. Appl. Clay Sci., 114: 517-529.
Anagnostopoulos, C. and Hadjispyrou, S. 2004. “Laboratory study of an epoxy resin grouted sand”. Ground Improvement, 8: 39-45.
Anagnostopoulos, C. and Papaliangas, T. 2012. “Experimental investigation of epoxy resin and sand mixes”. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 138: 841-849.
Anagnostopoulos, C. A., Papaliangas, T., Manolopoulou, S. and Dimopoulos, T. 2011. “Physical and mechanical properties of chemically grouted sand”. Tunnel. Underground Space Technol., 26(6): 718-724.
Anagnostopoulos, C., Kandiliotis, P., Lola, M. and Karavatos, V. 2014. “Improving properties of sand using epoxy resin and electrokinetics”. Geotech. Geol. Eng., 32: 859-872.
ASTM C496-11. “Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens”. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Vol. 04.08.
ASTM C938-80. “Standard Practice for Proportioning Grout Mixtures for Preplaced-Aggregate Concrete”. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Vol. 04.02.
ASTM D2166 / D2166M-13. “Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil”. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Vol. 04.08.
ASTM D422-63-e2. “Standard Test Method for Particle Size Analysis of Soils”. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Vol. 04.08.
ASTM D698-12e2. “Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort”. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Vol. 04.08.
Ates, A. 2013. “The effect of polymer-cement stabilization on the unconfined compressive strength of liquefiable soils”. Int. J. Polym. Sci., DOI: 10.1155/2013/356214.
Basha, E. A., Hashim, R., Mahmud, H. B. and Muntohar, A. S. 2005. “Stabilization of residual soil with rice husk ash and cement”. Constr. Build. Mater., 19(6): 448-453.
Cai, Y., Shi, B., Ng, C. W. W. and Tang, C. S. 2006. “Effect of polypropylene fibre and lime admixture on engineering properties of clayey soil”. J. Eng. Geol., 87: 230-240.
Consoli, N. C., Arcari Bassani, M. A. and Festugato, L. 2010. “Effect of fiber-reinforcement on the strength of cemented soils”.  Geotext. Geomembranes, 28(4): 344-351.
Das, B. M. 2006. “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering”. California State University, Sacramento, 5th edition.
Dean, R. and Freitag, F. 1986. “Soil randomly reinforced with fibers”. J. Geotech. Eng., 112: 820-826.
Ghiassian, H. and Poorebrahim, G. R. 2003. “Improvement of Strength Parameters of Sand Reinforced with Polymeric Fibers”. Dept. of Civil Eng., Iran Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Tehran, Iran.
Madhavi Latha, G. and Murthy, V. S. 2007. “Effects of reinforcement form on the behavior of geosynthetic reinforced sand”. Geotext. Geomembranes, 25: 23-32.
Marandi, S. M., 2008. “Strength and ductility of randomly distributed palm fibers reinforced silty-sand soils”.  Am. J. Appl. Sci., 5(3): 209-220.
Naeini, S. A. and Ghorbanalizadeh, M. 2010. “Effect of wet and dry conditions on strength of silty sand soils stabilized with epoxy resin polymer”. J. Appl. Sci., 10(22). DOI: 10.3923/jas.2010.2839.2846.
Nataraj, M. S. and McManis, K. L. 1997. “Strength and deformation properties of soils reinforced with fibrillated fibers”. Geosynth. Int., 4(1): 65-79.
Park, S. S. 2009. “Effect of fiber reinforcement and distribution on unconfined compressive strength of fiber-reinforced cemented sand”. Geotext. Geomembranes, 27(2): 162-166.
Tang, C., Shi, B. and Chen, W. 2007. “Strength and mechanical behavior of short polypropylene fiber reinforced and cement stabilized clayey soil”. J. Geotext. Geomembranes, 25: 194-202.
Waldron, L. J. 1977. “The shear resistance of root-permeated homogeneous and stratified soil”. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., 41(5): 843-849.
Wang, Y., Frost, J. D. and Murray, J. J. 200. “Utilization of Recycled Fiber for Soil Stabilization”. Proc. of The Fiber Society Meeting, Guimaraes, Portugal, pp. 59-62.