Effect of nanocellulose in modifying the mechanical properties and the volume changing of the sand-silt subgrade in controlling its local rupture

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Yazd University-Civil Engineering

2 Civil Engineering Departement,Yazd University


In two decades, the roads of the roads in the desert areas of the desert have also been changed. Fiber-reinforced soil behavior modification studies have been performed by compaction, uniaxial compressive strength, and California load-bearing ratios. In this research, studies were performed on soil stabilization of constructing roads in sandy loam soils using cellulose nanofibers. The aim of this study was to stabilize the cracked pavement bed and strengthen it by adding nanocellulose to the soil. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to find the type of soil in the area and the effectiveness of nanocellulose. Samples in these experiments were combined with 0.5, 1 and 1.5% nanocellulose, The results obtained from the experiments showed that the addition of nanocellulose increased the liquid and plastisite between 21 to 27% and 60 to 65% and decreased the plastisite index between 25 to 40%, respectively. Optimal moisture and dry specific gravity increase and decrease, respectively. The uniaxial strength of the samples increased between 30 and 85% and the maximum CBR number up to 12 times., and the soil strength class in all samples was changed to "very good" subgrade for use in pavement. The rupture zone energy results also show that the increase in nanocellulose has a positive effect on the modified specimens and delays the occurrence of rupture cracks due to loading and volumetric changes. The response Surface statistical method was also used to predict objective variables.


[1]Zhou, D. (2019). Experimental Study on Permanent Deformation of Fine Sandy Subgrade Filling in Coastal Region. In Key Engineering Materials (Vol. 814, pp. 419-424). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.
[3]Ghadakpour, M., Choobbasti, A. J., & Kutanaei, S. S. (2020). Investigation of the Kenaf fiber hybrid length on the properties of the cement-treated sandy soil. Transportation Geotechnics, 22, 100301.
 [4]Mitchell, J.K., Soga, K : (2005), "Fundamentals of soil behavior"‌ 3rd edn. John Wiley and Sons, New‌ York, 978-0-471-46302-3, p 592.
[5]Armaghani, D. J., Mirzaei, F., Shariati, M., Trung, N. T., Shariati, M., & Trnavac, D. (2020). Hybrid ANN-based techniques in predicting cohesion of sandy-soil combined with fiber. Geomechanics and Engineering, 20(3), 191-205.
[6]Basha E.A, Hashim R, Mahmud H.B, Muntohar A.S.(2005), "Stabilization of Residual soil using SiO2‌ nanoparticles and cement"., Constr. Build. Mater. 64 ,350-359.
[7] Ochi T, Okubo S, Fukui K. (2007), "Development of recycled PET fiber and its application as concrete-reinforcing fiber", Cement‌ &Concrete Composites, 29,448-455 .
[8] Zeng, L., Xiao, L., Zhang, J., & Fu, H. (2020). The Role of Nanotechnology in Subgrade and Pavement Engineering: A Review. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 20(8), 4607-4618.
[9] Buazar, F. (2019). Impact of biocompatible nanosilica on green stabilization of subgrade soil. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-9.
[10] Tanzadeh, R., Vafaeian, M., & Fard, M. Y. (2019). Effects of micro-nano-lime (CaCO3) particles on the strength and resilience of road clay beds. Construction and Building Materials, 217, 193-201.
[11] Bahmani S.H, Huat B.B.K, Asadi A, Farzadnia N. (2014), "Stabilization residual soil using SiO2‌ nanoparticles and cement"., Constr. Build. Mater. 64, 350-359.
[12] Emmanuel, E., Lau, C. C., Anggraini, V., & Pasbakhsh, P. (2019). Stabilization of a soft marine clay using halloysite nanotubes: A multi-scale approach. Applied Clay Science, 173, 65-78.
[13]‌ Koon-yang, Lee, Yvonne Aitomaki, Lars A. Berglund, Kristiina Oksman, Alexander Bismarck,(2014), On the use of nanocellulose as reinfoecement in polymer matrix composites, Composites Science and Technology 105,15-27
[14] Lani, N. S.,Ngadi, N., Johari, A., & Jusoh, M. (2014). Isolation, characterization, and application of nanocellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as nanocomposites. Journal of Nanomaterials, Article ID 702538 , 9 pages‌ 10.1155/2014/702538.
[15]‌ Gillis PP. (1969), Effect of hydrogen bonds on the axial stiffnes of crystalline‌ native cellulose. J polym Sci part A-2 ; polym phys ; 7(5): 783-940
[16] Maghchiche, A; Haouma, A And Immirzi, B, (2010), Use of polymers and biopolymers for water retaining and soil stabilization in arid and semiarid regions Département de pharmacie‌ Faculté de médecine, Université El Hadj Lakhdar, Batna 05395Algeria.
[17]‌ Maher, M.; Ho, Y. Mechanical Properties of Kaolinite/Fiber Soil Composite.j Geotech. Eng. 1994, 120, 1381–1393.
[18] Sivakumar Babu, G.; Vasudevan, A. Strength and Stiffness Response of Coir Fiber -Reinforced Tropical Soil. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 2008, 20, 571–577.
[19]Hassan, H.; Al-Oraimi, S.; Taha, R. Evaluation of open-graded friction course mixtures containing cellulose fibers and styrene butadiene rubber polymer. J. Mater . Civ‌ . Eng. )2005(, 17, 416–422.
[20]Nadezda Stevulova and‌ Viola Hospodarova,(2015), Cellulose Fibres Used in Building Materials Proceedings of REHVA Annual Conference “Advanced HVAC and Natural Gas Technologies” Riga, Latvia,p211-216, 10.7250/rehvaconf.031,
[21]Yousefi, H., Azari, V., & Khazaeian, A. (2018). Direct mechanical production of wood nanofibers from raw wood microparticles with no chemical treatment. Industrial Crops and Products, 115, 26-31. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092666901830116X.
[22] Shihata, S. A., & Baghdadi, Z. A. (2001). Simplified method to assess freeze-thaw durability of soil cement. Journal of materials in civil engineering, 13(4), 243-247.
[24] Fazeli, M., Florez, J. P., & Simão, R. A. (2019). Improvement in adhesion of cellulose fibers to the thermoplastic starch matrix by plasma treatment modification. Composites Part B: Engineering, 163, 207-216.
[25]Lotfalian, M., Parsakhoo, A., & Savadkoohi, A. (2016). Improvement of forest road gravel surfacing quality by Nano-polymer CBR PLUS. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering: Journal for Theory and Application of Forestry Engineering, 37(2), 352-345.
ج2[26]Rosales, J., Agrela, F., Marcobal, J. R., Diaz-López, J. L., Cuenca-Moyano, G. M., Caballero, Á., & Cabrera, M. (2020). Use of Nanomaterials in the Stabilization of Expansive Soils into a Road Real-Scale Application. Materials, 13(14), 3058.