Feasibility study of using bio-asphalt materials in bitumen in terms of rheology and performance grade

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor, Head of Department of Transportation, School of Civil Engineering, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 1996715433, Iran

2 Road and transportation department, Khaje Nasir University, Tehran, Iran

3 Chemistry department, Kashan University, Tehran, Iran


With the social and economic developments, as well as the new roads that are being built every year, the need for a smooth and durable pavement that has a longer service life is fully felt. In addition, it is no secret that the use of traditional asphalt mixes causes many environmental problems due to the use of bitumen, which is a non-renewable source. Therefore, researchers have been looking for a solution to improve pavement performance and find a suitable alternative to bitumen. One of these alternative materials is derived from biological sources, commonly referred to as BioAsphalt. In this study, the possibility of using lignin and waste engine oil, which are bio-asphalt materials, in bitumen to improve its properties was investigated. The lignin used in the study was extracted from black liquor. Waste engine oil was also taken from a car repair shop. The samples are PG64-22 as control sample, samples containing 5% and 10% lignin, samples containing 4% waste engine oil, and samples containing both additives. Superpave tests including RV, DSR, BBR, RTFO, PAV and MSCR were performed on all samples at different temperatures to fully examine the samples rheologically. The results showed that the addition of lignin or WEO or a combination of both, can improve the rheological properties of bitumen. Also using waste materials in bitumen can be useful from an environmental and economic point of view.


Main Subjects

  1. Azahar, W., Bujang, M., Putra Jaya, R., Hainin, M. R., Mohamed, A., Ngadi, N. and Jayanti, D. 2016. “The potential of waste cooking oil as bio-asphalt for alternative binder– An overview”. J. Teknol., 78. https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v78.8007

    Ben-Iwo, J., Manovic, V. and Longhurst, P. 2016. “Biomass resources and biofuels potential for the production of transportation fuels in Nigeria”. Renew. Sustain. Ener. Rev., 63: 172-192. https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.rser.2016.05.050

    Biermann, C. J. 1993. “Essentials of pulping and papermaking”. Academic Press.

    Dedene, C. D. and You, Z. 2014. “The performance of aged asphalt materials rejuvenated with waste engine oil”. Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol., 7: 145-152. https://doi.org/10.6135/ijprt.org.tw/2014.7(2).145

    Fernandes, S., Silva, H. M. and Oliveira, J. R. 2019. “Mechanical, surface and environmental evaluation of stone mastic asphalt mixtures with advanced asphalt binders using waste materials”. Road Mater. Pavement Design, 20(2): 316-333.

    Gao, J., Wang, H., Liu, C., Ge, D., You, Z. and Yu, M. 2020. “High-temperature rheological behavior and fatigue performance of lignin modified asphalt binder”. Constr. Build. Mater., 230: 117063.

    Gómez-Fernández, S., Ugarte, L., Calvo-Correas, T., Peña-Rodríguez, C., Corcuera, M. A. and Eceiza, A. 2017. “Properties of flexible polyurethane foams containing isocyanate functionalized kraft lignin”. Industrial Crops Products, 100: 51-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.02.005

    Hill, B., Oldham, D., Behnia, B., Fini, E., Buttlar, W. and Reis, H. 2018. “Evaluation of low temperature viscoelastic properties and fracture behavior of bio-asphalt mixtures”. Int. J. Pavement Eng., 19(4): 362-369. https://doi.org/10.1080/10298436.2016.1175563

    Liu, S., Peng, A., Wu, J. and Zhou, S. B. 2018. “Waste engine oil influences on chemical and rheological properties of different asphalt binders”. Constr. Build. Mater., 191: 1210-1220. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.conbuildmat.2018.10.126

    Maceiras, R., Alfonsín, V. and Morales, F. J. 2017. “Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production”. Waste Manag., 60: 351-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.08.009

    Mamat, R., Hainin, M. R., Hassan, N., Rahman, N., M. Warid, M. N. and Idham, M. 2015. “A review of performance asphalt mixtures using bio-binder as alternative binder”. J. Teknol., 77. https://doi.org /10.11113/jt.v77.6681

    Movilla-Quesada, D., Raposeiras, A. C., Muñoz, O. and Castro-Fresno, D. 2017. “Reduction in the use of mineral aggregate by recycling cellulose ashes to decrease the aging of hot asphalt mixtures”. Constr. Build. Mater., 143; 547-557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.03.154

    Norgbey, E., Huang, J., Hirsch, V., Liu, W., Wang, M., Ripke, O. … and Nkrumah, P. 2020. “Unravelling the efficient use of waste lignin as a bitumen modifier for sustainable roads”. Constr. Build. Mater., 230: 116957. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.116957  

    Pelitli, V., Doğan, Ö. and Köroğlu, H. J. 2017. “Waste oil management: Analyses of waste oils from vehicle crankcases and gearboxes”. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manag., 3(1): 11-20. https://doi.org/10.22034/gjesm. 2017.03.01.002

    Pérez, I., Pasandín, A. R., Pais, J. C. and Pereira, P. A. 2019. “Feasibility of using a lignin-containing waste in asphalt binders”. Waste Biomass Valorization, 11: 3021-3034.

    Qian, Y., Zhong, X., Li, Y. and Qiu, X. 2017. “Fabrication of uniform lignin colloidal spheres for developing natural broad-spectrum sunscreens with high sun protection factor”. Industrial Crops Products, 101: 54-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.03.001

    Qiu, Y., Ding, H., Rahman, A. and Wang, W. 2018. “Damage characteristics of waste engine oil bottom rejuvenated asphalt binder in the non-linear range and its microstructure”. Constr. Build. Mater., 174: 202-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.04.056

    Qurashi, I. A. and Swamy, A. K. 2018. “Viscoelastic properties of recycled asphalt binder containing waste engine oil”. J. Clean. Prod., 182: 992-1000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.237

    S.Y. Lin, C.W. Dence, Methods in lignin chemistry, Springer Science & Business Media2012

    Su, N., Xiao, F., Wang, J., Cong, L. and Amirkhanian, S. 2018. “Productions and applications of bio-asphalts– A review”. Constr. Build. Mater., 183: 578-591. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.06.118

    1. Shoukat, P.J. Yoo, Rheology of Asphalt Binder Modified with 5W30 Viscosity Grade Waste Engine Oil, Applied Sciences 8(7) (2018) 1194

    Villanueva, A., Ho, S. and Zanzotto, L. 2008. “Asphalt modification with used lubricating oil”. Can. J. Civ. Eng., 35: 148-157. https://doi.org/10.1139/L07-092

    Wang, H. and Derewecki, K. 2013. “Rheological properties of asphalt binder partially substituted with wood lignin”. In: Airfield and Highway Pavement 2013, Sustainable and Efficient Pavements, pp. 977-986.

    Xue, Y., Wu, S., Cai, J., Zhou, M. and Zha, J. 2014. “Effects of two biomass ashes on asphalt binder: Dynamic shear rheological characteristic analysis”. Constr. Build. Mater., 56: 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. conbuildmat.2014.01.075