Bridges security risk assessment considering uncertainty in network topology

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 assistant professor of engineering lorestan university


The proposed models to assess the security risks of bridges are generally designed based on the product of three-factor: probability (O), vulnerability (V), and importance (I). In this paper, the importance of bridge (I) and its changes due to the uncertainty of network topology during future network development programs were discussed. To measure and compare the relative importance of bridges, two groups of unique importance and the network-based importance of bridges were considered. Given that the network-based characteristics of bridges change during network development, a numerical example was presented to compare different decision-making approaches in selecting bridges (with and without considering the changes in the importance of bridge networks due to network changes). In this example, the Ahwaz inter-city transportation network was examined. The results showed that some bridges, such as B3, which were not important in the initial, became important during the development process. In contrast, in some bridges, such as B5, the relative importance was high at first, but during the development process, their relative importance decreased. It was also observed that a number of bridges such as B1, B6, and B7 are always important. In contrast, bridges such as B4 are always considered insignificant and network changes do not place them among the important bridges in any period.


Main Subjects

Al Kazimi, A. and MacKenzie, C. A. 2016. “The economic costs of natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and other calamities: An analysis of economic models that quantify the losses caused by disruptions”. IEEE Systems and Information Engineering Design Symposium (SIEDS).
Chipley, M., Lyon, W., Smilowitz, R., Williams, P., Arnold, C., Blewett, W., Hazen, L. and Krimgold, F. 2012. “Primer to design safe school projects in case of terrorist attacks and school shootings”. Buildings and Infrastructure Protection Series, FEMA-428/BIPS-07/January 2012, Edition 2, US Department of Homeland Security.
Cooper, J. D., Smith, M. C. and Ernst, S. L. 2010. “Blue Ribbon Panel recommendations for bridge and tunnel security”. Council, N. R.
Davis, C., Sammarco, E. and Williamson, E. 2017. “Bridge security design manual”. FHWA.
Dezfuli Nezhad, M., Raufi, R. and Dalvand, A. 2021. “Impact of network density on optimizing budget allocation to bridges for improving the resilience of the transportation network”. J. Transport. Infrastruct. Eng., 6(4): 81-99.
Dezfuli Nezhad, M., Raufi, R. and Dalvand, D 2022. “A network-based importance measurement index for bridge security risk assessment and prioritisation”. The Baltic J. Road Bridge Eng., 17(1): 1-30.
Diaz, E. E. M., Moreno, F. N. and Mohammadi, J. 2009. “Investigation of common causes of bridge collapse in Colombia”. Practice Period. Struct. Design Constr., 14(4): 194-200.
Duchaczek, A. and Skorupka, D. 2013. “Evaluation of probability of bridge damage as a result of terrorist attack”. Arch. Civ. Eng., 59(2): 215-227.
Duchaczek, A. and Skorupka, D. 2016. “A risk assessment method of bridge facilities damage in the aspect of potential terrorist attacks”. Period. Polytech. Civ. Eng., 60(2): 189-198.
Duwadi, S. R. and Chase, S. B. 2006. “Multiyear plan for bridge and tunnel security research, development, and deployment”. Publication No. FHWA-HRT-06-072.
Ede, A., Nwankwo, C., Oyebisi, S., Olofinnade, O., Okeke, A. and Busari, A. 2019. “Failure trend of transport infrastructure in developing nations: Cases of bridge collapse in Nigeria”. IOP Conference Series: Mater. Sci. Eng., 640: 012102.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2003a. “Reference manual to mitigate potential terrorist attacks against buildings”. FEMA-426, US Department of Homeland Security.
FEMA. 2003b. “FEMA 428: Primer to design safe school projects in case of terrorist attacks”. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.
FEMA. 2003c. “Primer for design of commercial buildings to mitigate terrorist attacks”. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.
FEMA. 2007. “FEMA 430: Site and urban design for security: Guidance against potential terrorist attacks”. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.
Frangopol, D. M., Sause, R. and Kusko, C. S. 2010. “Bridge maintenance, safety, management and life-cycle optimization”. Proceedings of the Fifth International IABMAS Conference, Philadelphia, USA, 11-15 July, CRC Press.
Frazier, E. R., Nakanishi, Y. J. and Lorimer, M. A. 2009. “Surface transportation security”. Volume 14: Security 101, a physical security primer for transportation agencies, No. 0309117933. NCHRP Report, 223 p.
Garg, R. K., Chandra, S. and Kumar, A. 2020. “Analysis of bridge failures in India from 1977 to 2017”. Struct. Infrastruct. Eng., 18(3): 295-312.
Girvan, M. and Newman, M. E. 2002. “Community structure in social and biological networks”. Proc. National Academy of Sci., 99(12): 7821-7826.
Guo, A., Liu, Z., Li, S. and Li, H. 2017. “Seismic performance assessment of highway bridge networks considering post-disaster traffic demand of a transportation system in emergency conditions”. Struct. Infrastruct. Eng., 13(12): 1523-1537.
Haardt, J. and Rothenpieler, S. 2013. “Europeanising transport security: Policy and research recommendations for improving transport infrastructure security in Europe”. In: Infrastruct. Risk Resilience: Transport., pp. 17-21.
Harvey, J. and Kumar, S. 2020. “A survey of intelligent transportation systems security: Challenges and solutions”. 2020 IEEE 6th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE International Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing (HPSC) and IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS).
Hatem, W. A. and Al-Tmeemy, S. M. H. 2015. “The impact of terrorism on construction industry in Iraq”. Wasit J. Eng. Sci., 3(2): 69-84.
Ip, W. H. and Wang, D. 2011. “Resilience and friability of transportation networks: Evaluation, analysis and optimization”. IEEE Syst. J., 5(2): 189-198.
Issa, L. 2008. “Development of an inspection checklist for risk assessment of bridges in New Jersey”. Rutgers University, Graduate School, New Brunswick.
Jenkins, B. M. 2001. “Protecting public surface transportation against terrorism and serious crime: An executive overview”. NCJRS, No. 193964.
Kaundinya, I., Krieger, J., Mayer, G. and Rothenpieler, S. 2014. “Security of road transport networks: Identifying and assessing critical road infrastructure”. Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting, 12-16 Jan., Washington, DC.
Kim, K. and Lee, J. 2020. “Fragility of bridge columns under vehicle impact using risk analysis”. Adv. Civ. Eng., 2020: 713910.
Leung, M., Lambert, J. H. and Mosenthal, A. 2004. “A risk‐based approach to setting priorities in protecting bridges against terrorist attacks”. Risk Anal.: An Int. J., 24(4): 963-984.
Li, Y., Wang, T., Song, X. and Li, G. 2016. “Optimal resource allocation for anti-terrorism in protecting overpass bridge based on AHP risk assessment model”. KSCE J. Civ. Eng., 20(1): 309-322.
Merschman, E., Doustmohammadi, M., Salman, A. M. and Anderson, M. 2020. “Postdisaster decision framework for bridge repair prioritization to improve road network resilience”. Transport. Res. Record, 2674(3): 81-92.
Qeshta, I. 2019. “Fragility and resilience of bridges subjected to extreme wave-induced forces”. RMIT University, Melbourne.
Ray, J. C. 2007. “Risk-based prioritization of terrorist threat mitigation measures on bridges”. J. Bridge Eng., 12(2): 140-146.
Rezaei, S., Mirzaei, Z., Khalighi, M. and Bahrami, J. 2021. “Review and classification of the indicators and trends used in bridge performance modeling”. Int. J. Urban Civ. Eng., 15(2): 116-125.
Richardson, H. W., Park, J., Moore II, J. E. and Pan, Q. 2014. “National economic impact analysis of terrorist attacks and natural disasters”. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Roberts, J. E. 2003. “Recommendations for bridge and tunnel security”. Prepared by The Blue Ribbon Panel on Bridge and Tunnel Security.
Rummel, T., Hyzak, M. D. and Ralls, M. L. 2002. “Transportation security activities in Texas”. Vital Links in Securing Our Mobility, International Bridge Conference, 19th Annual IBC Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania.
Shahin, A. and Jaferi, F. 2015. “The shortest route for transportation in supply chain by minimum spanning tree”. Int. J. Logist. Syst. Manag., 22(1): 43-54.
Sheng, T. 2009. “Logistics node location and route optimization based on minimum spanning tree”. Transport Standardization, 9.
Smith, M. C., Rowshan, S., Krill Jr., S., Seplow, J. and Sauntry, W. 2002. “A guide to highway vulnerability assessment for critical asset identification and protection”. Science Applications International Corporation.
Valeo, M. M. 2010. “Using the analytic hierarchy process to improve the Rutgers simple bridge security checklist”. Rutgers University Graduate School, New Brunswick.
Valeo, M., Nassif, H., Issa, L., Capers Jr., H. and Ozbay, K. 2012. “Analytic hierarchy process to improve simple bridge security checklist”. Transportat. Res. Record, 2313(1): 201-207.
Yu, R., Chen, L., Fang, Q. and Huan, Y. 2018. “An improved nonlinear analytical approach to generate fragility curves of reinforced concrete columns subjected to blast loads”. Adv. Struct. Eng., 21(3): 396-414.
Zhang, W. and Wang, N. 2016. “Resilience-based risk mitigation for road networks”. Struct. Safety, 62: 57-65.