Low-Temperature Fracture Characteristics of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Modified with crumb rubber and rejuvenator

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran

2 Transportation Group, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran

3 School of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran


Recycling and reusing materials have received much attention from researchers in recent decades. Today, environmental issues have become very important due to the limitation of available resources as well as the increase in the cost of new materials. Since most of the existing roads in Iran have flexible pavements, using reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and using fewer new materials can be considered an environmentally friendly solution. In recycling asphalt pavements, there is a major concern related to low-temperature cracking. The purpose of this research is to investigate the low-temperature cracking properties of asphalt mixtures containing RAP along with other additives to introduce a mixture with performance characteristics equivalent to the new asphalt mixture. For this purpose, asphalt mixtures with two different contents of RAP (25% and 50%) were considered. Also, to improve their adhesion properties, the addition of a rejuvenator (10% by weight of RAP binder as the optimal percentage) and to improve the resistance of the mixture against cracking, crumb rubber (10% by weight of new binder) was considered. An indirect tensile strength test and a semi-circular bending test (SCB) were performed to investigate the properties of the mixtures. Also, the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) during the SCB test was measured through imaging. According to the SCB test, adding RAP to the base sample reduces the fracture energy. But adding rejuvenator and crumb rubber to the recycled samples improves the properties of the mixture against crack growth. The results showed that the asphalt mixtures containing RAP and additives, according to the tests used in this research, presented equal or even better performance than the new asphalt mixture. Also, the combined index of fracture energy - CMOD can be used as a suitable criterion to investigate the effect of RAP, rejuvenator and crumb rubber in asphalt mixture.


Main Subjects

AASHTO T283. 2007. “Standard method of test for resistance of compacted asphalt mixtures to moisture-induced damage”. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
AASHTO TP105. 2013. “Standard method of test for determining the fracture energy of asphalt mixtures using the semicircular bend geometry (SCB)(p. 14)”. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
Al-Qadi, I. L., Qazi, A. and Carpenter, S. H. 2012. “Impact of high RAP content on structural and performance properties of asphalt mixtures”. Research Report FHWA-ICT-12-002.
Ali, A. W., Mehta, Y. A., Nolan, A., Purdy, C. and Bennert, T. 2016. “Investigation of the impacts of aging and RAP percentages on effectiveness of asphalt binder rejuvenators”. Constr. Build. Mater., 110: 211-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.013
Ameli, A., Babagoli, R. and Aghapour, M. 2016. “Laboratory evaluation of the effect of reclaimed asphalt pavement on rutting performance of rubberized asphalt mixtures”. Petrol. Sci. Technol., 34(5): 449-453.
Artamendi, I., Phillips, P. and Allen, B. 2009. “Workability of bituminous mixtures incorporating reclaimed asphalt”. Sixth International Conference on Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Pavements and Technological Control (MAIREPAV6), International Society for Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Transportation Infrastructure, Transportation Research Board.
ASTM C702. 2018. “Standard practice for reducing samples of aggregate to testing size”. American Society for Testing Materials. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0702
ASTM D2172. 2011. “Standard test methods for quantitative extraction of bitumen from bituminous paving mixtures”. American Society for Testing and Materials. https://doi.org/10.1520/D2172-11.2
ASTM D6307. 2016. “Standard test method for asphalt content of asphalt mixture by ignition method”. American Society for Testing Materials.
ASTM D6931. 2007. “Standard test method for indirect tensile (IDT) strength of bituminous mixtures”. American Society for Testing Materials. https://doi.org/10.1520/D6931-12.2
Baghaee Moghaddam, T. and Baaj, H. 2016. “The use of rejuvenating agents in production of recycled hot mix asphalt: A systematic review”. Constr. Build. Mater., 114: 805-816.
Behnood, A. 2019. “Application of rejuvenators to improve the rheological and mechanical properties of asphalt binders and mixtures: A review”. J. Clean. Prod., 231: 171-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro .2019.05.209
Behroozikhah, A., Morafa, S. H. and Aflaki, S. 2017. “Investigation of fatigue cracks on RAP mixtures containing Sasobit and crumb rubber based on fracture energy”. Constr. Build. Mater., 141: 526-532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.03.011
Bonicelli, A., Calvi, P., Martinez-Arguelles, G., Fuentes, L. and Giustozzi, F. 2017. “Experimental study on the use of rejuvenators and plastomeric polymers for improving durability of high RAP content asphalt mixtures”. Constr. Build. Mater., 155: 37-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.013
Cavalli, M. C., Zaumanis, M., Mazza, E., Partl, M. N. and Poulikakos, L. D. 2018. “Aging effect on rheology and cracking behaviour of reclaimed binder with bio-based rejuvenators”. J. Clean. Prod., 189: 88-97.
Chen, X. and Solaimanian, M. 2019. “Evaluating fracture properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt mixes”. Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol., 12: 407-415.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s42947-019-0048-6
Cominsky, R. J., Huber, G. A., Kennedy, T. W. and Anderson, M. 1994. “The superpave mix design manual for new construction and overlays”. SHRP-A-407, Strategic Highway Research Program, Washington, DC.
Epps, A., Fawaz Kaseer, M., Arámbula-Mercado, E., Baja, A., Garcia Cucalon, L., Yin, F., Chowdhury, A., Epps, J., Glover, C., Hajj, Y., E., Morian, N., Sias Daniel, J., Oshone, M., Rahbar-Rastegar, R., Ogbo, C. and King, G. 2020. “Evaluating the effects of recycling agents on asphalt mixtures with high RAS and RAP binder ratios”. NCHRP Research Report 927. https://doi.org/10.17226/25749
Girimath, S., Singh, D., Manthos, E. and Mampearachchi, W. K. 2018. “Effects of reclaimed asphalt binder on rheological properties and cohesion energy of crumb rubber modified binder”. Innov. Infrastruct. Solut., 3: 57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-018-0164-1
Haghshenas, H., Nabizadeh, H., Kim, Y. R. and Santosh, K. 2016. “Research on high-rap asphalt mixtures with rejuvenators and WMA additives”. Nebraska Department of Roads Research Report, Report SPR-P1(15) M016.
He, G. P. and Wong, W. G. 2008. “Effects of moisture on strength and permanent deformation of foamed asphalt mix incorporating RAP materials”. Constr. Build. Mater., 22(1): 30-40.
He, H., Zhang, E., Fatokoun, S. and Shan, L. 2018. “Effect of the softer binder on the performance of repeated RAP binder”. Constr. Build. Mater., 178: 280-287.
Jahanbakhsh, H., Karimi, M. M., Moghadas Nejad, F. and Jahangiri, B. 2016. “Viscoelastic-based approach to evaluate low temperature performance of asphalt binders”. Constr. Build. Mater., 128: 384-398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.10.073
Jahanbakhsh, H., Karimi, M. M., Naseri, H. and Moghadas Nejad, F. 2019. “Sustainable asphalt concrete containing high reclaimed asphalt pavements and recycling agents: Performance assessment, cost analysis, and environmental impact”. J. Clean. Prod., 244: 118837. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118837
Kocak, S. 2016. “Interaction between recycled tire rubber, polymers and high amount of reclaimed asphalt pavements”. PhD Dissertation, Michigan State University.
Kriz, P., Grant, D. L., Veloza, B. A., Gale, M. J., Blahey, A. G., Brownie, J. H., Shirts, R. D. and Maccarrone, S. 2014. “Blending and diffusion of reclaimed asphalt pavement and virgin asphalt binders”. Road Mater. Pavement Des., 15(Sup1): 78-112.
Liang, M., Ren, S., Fan, W., Xin, X., Shi, J. and Luo, H. 2017. “Rheological property and stability of polymer modified asphalt: Effect of various vinyl-acetate structures in EVA copolymers”. Constr. Build. Mater., 137: 367-380.
Lu, D. X., Bui, H. H. and Saleh, M. 2021. “Effects of specimen size and loading conditions on the fracture behaviour of asphalt concretes in the SCB test”. Eng. Fract. Mech., 242: 107452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfracmech.2020.107452
Ma, Y., Zheng, K., Ding, Y., Polaczyk, P., Jiang, X. and Huang, B. 2022. “Binder availability and blending efficiency of reclaimed asphalt: A state-of-the-art review”. Constr. Build. Mater., 357: 129334.
Mangiafico, S., Sauzéat, C., Di Benedetto, H., Pouget, S., Olard, F. and Planque, L. 2017. “Complex modulus and fatigue performances of bituminous mixtures with reclaimed asphalt pavement and a recycling agent of vegetable origin”. Road Mater. Pavement Des., 18(2): 315-330.
Mazzoni, G., Bocci, E. and Canestrari, F. 2018. “Influence of rejuvenators on bitumen ageing in hot recycled asphalt mixtures”. J. Traffic Transport. Eng., 5(3): 157-168.
Reyes-Ortiz, O., Berardinelli, E., Alvarez, A. E., Carvajal-Muñoz, Js. and Fuentes, L. G. 2012. “Evaluation of hot mix asphalt mixtures with replacement of aggregates by reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) material”. Proc. Soc. Behav. Sci., 53: 379-388.
Saha, G. and Biligiri, K. P. 2016. “Fracture properties of asphalt mixtures using semi-circular bending test: A state-of-the-art review and future research”. Constr. Build. Mater., 105: 103-112. https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.conbuildmat.2015.12.046
Shu, X. and Huang, B. 2014. “Recycling of waste tire rubber in asphalt and portland cement concrete: An overview”. Constr. Build. Mater., Part B, 67: 217-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.11.027
Tabatabaee, H. A. and Kurth, T. L. 2017. “Analytical investigation of the impact of a novel bio-based recycling agent on the colloidal stability of aged bitumen”. Road Mater. Pavement Des., 18: 131-140.
Tang, S. 2014. “Evaluate the fracture and fatigue resistances of hot mix asphalt containing high percentage reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) materials at low and intermediate temperatures”. PhD Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Tran, N. H., Taylor, A. and Willis, R. 2012. “Effect of rejuvenator on performance properties of HMA mixtures with high RAP and RAS contents”. NCAT Report, 5-12.
Valdés, G., Pérez-Jiménez, F., Miró, R., Martínez, A. and Botella, R. 2011. “Experimental study of recycled asphalt mixtures with high percentages of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)”. Constr. Build. Mater., 25(3): 1289-1297.
Yan, Y., Roque, R., Cocconcelli, C., Bekoe, M. and Lopp, G. 2017. “Evaluation of cracking performance for polymer-modified asphalt mixtures with high RAP content”. Road Mater. Pavement Des., 18(Sup1): 450-470.
Yildirim, Y., Solaimanian, M. and Kennedy, T. W. 2000. “Mixing and compaction temperatures for hot mix asphalt concrete”. University of Texas at Austin, Center for Transportation Research.
Zani, L., Giustozzi, F. and Harvey, J. 2017. “Effect of storage stability on chemical and rheological properties of polymer-modified asphalt binders for road pavement construction”. Constr. Build. Mater., 145: 326-335.
Zaumanis, M., Mallick, R. and Frank, R. 2013. “Evaluation of rejuvenator’s effectiveness with conventional mix testing for 100% reclaimed asphalt pavement mixtures”. Transport. Res. Record., 2370(1). https://doi.org/10.3141/2370-03
Zaumanis, M., Mallick, R. B. and Frank, R. 2015. “Evaluation of different recycling agents for restoring aged asphalt binder and performance of 100% recycled asphalt”. Mater. Struct., 48(8): 2475-2488.
Zaumanis, M., Boesiger, L., Kunz, B., Cavalli, M. C. and Poulikakos, L. 2019. “Determining optimum rejuvenator addition location in asphalt production plant”. Constr. Build. Mater., 198: 368-378.
Ziari, H., Moniri, A., Bahri, P. and Saghafi, Y. 2019a. “Evaluation of performance properties of 50% recycled asphalt mixtures using three types of rejuvenators”. Petrol. Sci. Technol.,  https://doi.org/10.1080/10916 466.2018.1550505
Ziari, H., Moniri, A., Bahri, P. and Saghafi, Y. 2019b. “The effect of rejuvenators on the aging resistance of recycled asphalt mixtures”. Constr. Build. Mater., 224: 217-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat .2019.06.181
Ziari, M. A., Hajikarimi, P., Kheirati Kazerooni, A. and Moghadas Nejad, F. 2019c. “Investigation of fracture and crack propagation characteristics of asphalt mixtures modified with polyphosphoric acid based on semi-circular bending (SCB) test”. J. Transport. Infrastruct. Eng., 5(4): 13-31. https://doi.org/10.22075/jtie .2019.18304.1405
Ziari, H., Bananezhad, S., Bananezhad, A. and Ziari, M. A. 2022. “Immediate and long-term characteristics of recycling agents in the restoration of chemical properties of aged asphalt binder”. J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 34(12): 4022318.